CHILDREN'S HEALTH SPECIALISTS: Dr. Phillip Gioia, Suite 203, 37 W. Garden Street, Auburn, NY 13021
Office: (315) 253-6257 Call Office First
Fax: (315) 253-8693,
cell 7AM -9PM 209-3407
Answering Service: (315) 255-6285
E- Mail: www.RelayHealth.com
Web Site: http://www.chealths.com
NEWBORN OWNER'S MANUAL
As the new owner of your family, your newborn will likely be quite demanding. The newborn often requires frequent feedings, changing of soiled clothes and diapers, and continuing education and stimulation whenever boredom strikes.
Human babies often do best with human breast milk. They have drunk it for 200,000 years or so. It is easy to digest, helps fight infections, and produces less allergies than formulas do. The breasts should be prepared a few weeks before birth. http://www.supplecups.com/ help with inverted nipples. Oral vitamin D supplement is needed for breast-fed infants when the sun is weak. Formulas now are the best they have ever been. Most babies do well on them. Encourage breast fed babies to feed every 1 to 2 hours for the first few days of life to help the breast milk to come in. Some bottle fed babies only feed every 4 to 6 hours if their stomachs are large enough. In the first 2 days of life the baby's appetite may be poor. Newborns often lose weight in the first week and are then back up to their birth weight by their 2 week old office visit. Prematures tend to lose more weight for a longer time and need to feed more frequently.
For bottle feeding infants it is safest to boil the water used in the formula during the first 2 months. If your water is algae contaminated, use reverse osmosis filters or an alternate source of water or ready to feed formula. Bring the water to boil then let it cool to room temperature before mixing with the concentrated formula or if using powdered formula mix it with the water when it is still warm or about 100 to 105 F or 38 to 40 C. When using rigid bottles be sure that they are cleaned and dry in between uses, and that the nipple edges are loose enough to let air bubbles into the bottle when the baby is sucking the formula out.
Solid feedings such as rice cereal, fruit and vegetables are usually only started after the infant is over 4 months old or over 14 pounds. Starting solids earlier is more likely to cause food allergies.
Hiccups or spit up are usually signs that the infant's stomach is full of either gas or feeding. If the infant has just been fed wait until the hiccups are done before feeding the infant more. If the baby wants to suck you may use a pacifier. If the infant has gas try burping the infant gently before feeding the infant more. Breast fed infants may want to feed every time their Mom holds them. When breast fed infants are full then Dad or other friends or relatives may hold the baby to help relax them. For hiccups and/or spitting up, more frequent feedings often help. For nutrition for infants over 4 months old see information below.
Newborns start with sticky frequent dark meconium stools that are non-irritating to the skin. These change to loose yellow stools that are irritating to the skin. When breastfed, the baby’s stools often stay loose and frequent. To protect the skin use only water to clean the diaper area, dry thoroughly, and petroleum or ointment may be applied to act as a barrier. When formula-fed, the baby’s stools become mushy or pasty over the first two weeks. If the baby tends to have a hard time passing stools then you may offer the baby sugar water twice a day. (Sugar water: mix one teaspoon of sugar in 1 ounce of boiled and cooled water.) The normal baby will have 6-8 wet diapers per day.
LOVE THAT BABY
Babies are learners from the start. Before birth, the baby hears voices of the family and after birth the baby tends to be content when spoken to by the family members. Responding to babies when they make sounds helps encourage them to speak. Newborns like looking at faces and listening to familiar voices also. Most newborns like to be held and rocked. Many like listening to music. At 4 weeks of age be prepared to talk to, look at, hold and rock, and play music to your baby often since this is usually the age when infants cry the most. Babies learn speech patterns and develop a sense of security in the first 6 months. The more you hold your baby in the first 6 months, the more independent the baby will be later on. Spoiling only becomes a problem later on when the family does things for the child that the child may do without help. If the baby often fusses and/or spits up then feed the baby more often so that the baby gets less breast milk and/or formula at a time and is able to handle the smaller frequent feedings better.
Babies have less risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) when they sleep on their back (“Back to Sleep”). Nothing but a firm mattress and a blanket should be in the baby’s crib (no stuffed animals, bumpers, pillows, mattress pads, etc.). Sneezing is very normal in newborns. If the baby is congested or has thick mucus in the nose, then try to loosen the mucus and decrease the congestion with 2 salt-water nose drops in each nostril every 2 hours (Nose drops: 1/8-teaspoon salt in 1 ounce of boiled and cooled water). If mucus is seen at the front opening of the nose then a bulb syringe may be used to gently suction it out. In the winter when the air is very dry, a humidifier or vaporizer may help to loosen up dry mucus. If the baby is coughing often or breathing hard and is unable to drink or sleep, please don’t hesitate to call (Even without a fever, an infant may have an infection that may need special treatment and should be examined). Smoke from cigarettes or wood stoves increases the risk of SIDS, ear infections, respiratory infections, and food allergies. Smoking cigarettes is a difficult habit to break but it is well worth it for improved infant and adult health. If the parent or baby is sleepy be sure to put the baby in a basinette or crib to prevent rolling on to the floor or a parent rolling onto the baby.
If you feed, change, talk to, walk, rock, and play music to your baby and the baby is still fussing or feels very warm, check the baby's temperature. A normal ear or rectal temperature may go up to 100.5 F or 38.0 C. The average rectal temperature for well humans is 99.5 F or 37.5 C. Temperatures in the armpit tend to be lower by 2 F or 1 C, are less accurate, and require you to keep the thermometer in the armpit for up to 5 minutes. A rectal temperature only takes 1 minute with the thermometer tip just inside the rectum. If the rectal or ear temperature is over 102.0 F please call day or night; the baby will be seen that day, either at the office or the Emergency Department. If the temperature is elevated but less than 102 F and the baby is otherwise doing well, keep monitoring them and call the office during normal business hours.
VOMITING AND DIARRHEA
If the baby has frequent vomiting and/or severe diarrhea, dehydration can occur easily. If the baby is very sleepy, unresponsive to family members, or has a dry diaper for over 12 hours, please call immediately. If the baby vomits breast milk or formula, try an oral electrolyte solution or oral rehydration treatment (OES or ORT) such as Pedialyte. These may be bought at the store or a similar solution may be made at home. (OES: 20 ounces of boiled and cooled water with three teaspoons of sugar and 1/4 teaspoon of salt). Once the baby is keeping down the OES or ORT, then breast milk or a lactose free formula may be used until the diarrhea is gone. The most common of these formulas are the soy formulas: Isomil, Prosobee, Good Start Soy, or the sensitive formulas with reduced lactose.
Thick frequent yellow/green mucus in the eyes indicates the presence of germs or bacterial conjunctivitis. This drainage is irritating and should be cleaned off with a clean cotton ball using boiled then cooled water. If there is frequent watery drainage, the tear duct between the inner corner of the eye and the inside of the nose may be blocked or poorly developed (babies still have some immaturities after they are born). Call the office if the drainage is very thick or if the eye is very swollen or red. About ½ of the time infants get eye infections they also get an ear infection.
The umbilical stump rots away over 1-3 weeks and then falls off. The dye often put on the cord at the hospital nursery kills harmful germs. To keep the stump from getting infected, keep it dry. If you notice mucus or blood at the base of the stump before it falls off, alcohol may be used to clean it. Once the stump falls off, hydrogen peroxide may be used to clean the belly button to remove old blood and mucus. If the stump starts to smell, drain pus, or get red around it, call the office.
BOY and GIRLS
Circumcisions are optional (9/10 boys in this area are circumcisized). Circumcisions, or removing the end of the foreskin off the penis, have some health benefits. They will be less likely to develop urinary tract infections (decrease from 1 in 2000 to 1 in 10,000) and cancer of the end of the penis (decrease from 1 in 100,000 to 1 in 10,000,000). If there is much thick yellow pus and/or swelling of the penis around the circumcision, please call. If the site of the circumcision has some redness and mucus, use soap and water to clean it and then apply a triple antibiotic ointment (Neosporin). When cleaning the penis you may gently pull back the foreskin to cleanse the area well. For boys without circumcisions the foreskin may fail to come back much until they are 5 years old.
In the first 2 weeks of life, baby girls may have a cloudy white mucus discharge and labial swelling due to the lingering effects of the mother's hormones. These hormones may also cause breast buds to develop in newborn boys and girls. There may also be a bloody vaginal discharge due to the withdrawal of the adult female's hormones. Don’t forget to cleaning from front to back only.
About one half of all newborns get a yellow/orange color by 3 days of age. This color comes from the natural, but toxic, chemical bilirubin. The average bilirubin level in a 3-day-old is 7 but in children and adults the average level is less than 1. About 1/10 newborns will get levels over 12. If the baby is full term and healthy, bilirubin levels of 15 or less are considered safe by most experts. The levels are low at birth because the mother's liver gets rid of the bilirubin before birth. The levels rise in the newborn until the baby's liver starts to get rid of the bilirubin itself, which is usually on the third day of life. Babies born early or with severe breathing problems are more sensitive to the toxic effects of bilirubin. Sunshine and fluorescent lights help to get rid of the bilirubin. Bilirubin levels are best checked by a blood test. The skin color appears from head to toes and disappears from toes to head. Higher levels go to lower body levels
About 1/20 babies will fuss all evening in the first few months of life. If the baby is fussy in the evening but sleeps well at night, eats well, and has no fever, the baby may have colic. If you suspect this, please call during regular office hours so that the nurses can guide you. These babies can be frustrating, but are usually healthy. If the feeding, changing, rocking, holding, and music fail to help, sometimes a visit to the doctor is needed to rule out food allergies, heart burn, infections or other irritations. Sometimes a simple change in diet to avoid food irritants or allergens is all that is necessary. Even breastfed infants may become sensitive to foods their mothers eat or drink (ex. chocolate or cow’s milk).
Babies only need to be bathed every 3-4 days since their skin is dry. In very humid weather, baths may be given more often. If the skin is especially dry, soap should be avoided. Baby soaps are usually milder than regular soap. Skin lotions or creams may be used if the skin is cracked or red, though this is normal for newborns. Baby wipes may be used for traveling, but plain water and a clean washcloth are usually easier and less irritating on the diaper area.
Newborns often get white or red pimples on their face, this is normal. They may also get scaly red areas on their scalp, behind their ears, under their arms or in their groin. These rashes are often caused by a superficial infection by common yeast or fungi. Bathing these areas twice a week with selenium sulfide (Selsun Blue), pyrithon zinc (Head and Shoulders), or other dandruff shampoos often helps. Where the scalp is flaky and scaly, olive oil or baby oil may be used 30 minutes before shampooing. Olive oil may also be used on dry or irritated skin.
Infant car seats should always be facing backwards until the infant is 20 lbs AND 1 yr of age. Never place a backward facing car seat in front of an air bag. Hot water should be at 120 degrees F or less. At a higher temperature, burns with severe blisters form within a second. At lower temperatures, there is time for feeling the heat and avoiding it.
This is probably the only time that your child will listen to you intently and LEARN with everything you do and say. So take advantage and get as much information into the baby in this first short year. Once your infant learns to breathe, sleep (they may have a night schedule to start), eat, smile, laugh, babble, roll, crawl and sit, the baby is well on the way to success.
Vegetables for Health: The China Study Reviewed
I was pleased to read in October about Professor Colin Campbell’s talk on his book The China Study at the Skaneateles Library. As an epidemiologist for the past 30 years, he has always been one of my nutrition heroes. He is a Professor Emeritus at Cornell University at present. He grew up on diary farm as a child, but through his studies he now thinks we could greatly decrease coronary artery disease, cancer and many autoimmune problems by eating a whole food plant derived diet. He himself has gone vegan, eating only such foods. His studies and his animal experiments as cited in the book suggest that getting animal based protein below 5% of our calorie intake would achieve most of the benefits. Most people in the United States of America get about 20 to 30% of their calories from animal derived proteins including meat, eggs, milk, cheese and fish. With so much of our diet presently derived from animal proteins attempting to go vegan whenever possible would help get our average consumption less than 5%. If you changed your diet in this manner would this improve your future health?
What could possibly go wrong? Well, a lot of things. The main evidence for Professor Campbell’s conclusions comes from animal studies and association studies in China. Animal studies help us understand animal biology that is very similar to ours; however it is not the same. In the 1980’s we thought beta-carotene (a form of Vitamin A) would decrease cancer risk in humans due to its beneficial effects in animal experiments, however results of large scale intervention trials showed that it actually increased the risk of cancer in humans who smoked cigarettes. (See The Way: Knowledge Balances Territory and Compassion by Phillip Gioia, MD, MPH.) Professor Campbell tells us that vegetables are better eaten whole or at least with all their digestible parts to give us the maximum benefits. Supplements are only a last resort. Association studies as done in China by Professor Campbell show that certain ways of life, diet, and people are associated with certain diseases. People on the low protein diets had more parasitic infections and more pneumonia along with less heart disease and cancer. Some people think natural infections help decrease allergy and inflammation and that actually might decrease the heart disease and cancer. With so many variables different between China and the United States of America we should do some large randomized intervention trials to help be sure that a vegan, vegetarian or low animal protein diet will have a beneficial net effect. Professor Campbell does cite small studies of people with heart disease, cancer and multiple sclerosis to show some benefits of the low animal protein diet, but to have a large cultural change we should have more thorough evaluations. I would bet that eating more vegetables, fruits, nuts and seeds would help most of us but I might be wrong.
Let’s find out! With electronic medical records and shoppers cards we might link nutrition and health information in a private and secure manner. Just about every doctor in Skaneateles use electronic medical records and many stores and some cafeterias track customer use information and preferences. We might start by comparing vegans, vegetarians and various degrees of animal protein users. With volunteers we might assign diets randomly to people who lacked strong, social or taste preferences, then compare there health outcomes over years of observation. With heart disease effects might be seen in 1-2 years but with cancer effects might take 10 years to show up.
If you would like a copy of The China Study you may get it www.TheChinaStudy.com ; and The Way: Knowledge Balance Territory and Compassion may be obtained from Children’s Health Specialists at 37 West Garden Street, Auburn, NY and from www.Amazon.com . Fennel along with other fine local organic vegetables may be obtained from www.EarlyMorningFarm.com . Later we may talk about the public health works of Spafford native Stephen Smith, MD one of the founders of the American Public Health Association; James Marshall: Mayor and civil engineer; and Janice Flood Nichols who sought refuge from polio in the 1950’s in Skaneateles and now crusades against it. We might also review fine whole food derived from plants cuisine and availability in our environs and how it helps us in other ways including lake, air, and environmental health as demonstrated at www.ElderBerryPond.com .
Adaptive Living Services
Below is a service for secure consultations available in person, by phone/video or internet to help you with health decisons and record management that is private yet accessible.
Phillip C. Gioia, MD, MPH, FAAP, FACPM May 2012
Children’s Health Specialists
Health Central, Suite 203, Auburn, NY 13021 phone 315 253 6257 fax 315 253 8693
http://www.chealths.com for information and Patient Portal
secure e-mail at WWW.RelayHealth.com if not on Patient Portal
insecure e-mail at email@example.com
Adaptive Living Services
$105Initial Consult for 30 minutes to discuss what we offer to help you live better for less cost. $210Hourly fee for individual, family or group consultation to help you live adaptively: to enjoy life more and conserve your resources. Recommended pre-conception, pre-birth, pre-teen, and pre-death. May gather history and do education. $240 Annual fee to maintain up to 20 graphic pages of medical records and 200 pages of digital records. Recommended records to have - Health Care Proxy, Living Will, Medical Care Summary or CCR (Continuity of Care Record), and medication list. Includes unlimited Patient Portal Secure Internet access 23x7. Includes access by paper copy or digital media or faxing once a year at our office during regular office hours or by mail. Further paper, e-mail or faxing or mailing $40 per request or $.75 per page whichever is more. $240Retainer Fee for access to Dr. Gioia by Patient Portal or phone/video or e-mail to consult on adaptive living and how to use health and medical resources. $60 charge for up to 10 minutes of phone/video consultation or for each 15 minutes of work on e-mail requests or Patient Portal requests. Available 14x7.
All fees should be paid prior to service and missed appointments will be charged for at the usual rate.
We recommend that you also have a primary care doctor to take care of your immediate medical needs. Dr. Gioia and staff at Children’s Health Specialists may do your primary care for children and young adults as your insurance permits.
We will concentrate on your long term needs and coordination of health and medical care.
Your records will be shared or kept private according to your wishes and your funding of your information services. As long as you avoid asking for insurance payments we may keep your records private from anyone according to your wishes and Federal and State Law.
I, ____________________, understand that Phillip Gioia, MD, MPH through his Adaptive Living Service will only advise me and my family on how to live better while conserving resources. He or his Service may recommend medical care or treatments but he and his Service will depend on me and my physician to deliver the medical service; and I have or will soon try to get a primary care physician.
The Way: Knowledge Balances Territory and Compassion
The sun will be brighter after the winter solstice and humans will continue the grand balancing act of maintaining territories and helping others. One is determined by physics and the other by biology. We like most of the animals that share our planet, create and maintain territories to help preserve resources for our families and social groups. We and the animals also help the immature and helpless. When the immature and helpless are outside our territory we have conflicting emotions. Giving resources from our territory to help needy outsiders may put our children and friends at risk. In the past our giving decisions would go by the strength of our group feelings.. In the present with on line real time data systems we may evaluate where the greatest needs are and what are the effects of giving. With transparent impartial objective evaluations that are private and secure we may protect our families and groups, and get excess resources to where they will help the most. Information systems with public access, transparency, privacy and security set us free from the waste of excessive greed, prejudice, social engineering, and poorly planned giving.
At present to combat our problems in health, energy, terrorism and the environment we need information systems to promote, administer and evaluate: a whole food plant based diet, exercise used to reduce our energy needs, the use of renewable energy sources, non-violent conflict resolution, and the efficient use of our planet’s resources.
For a copy of the book: The Way: Knowledge Balances Territory and Compassion go to www.Amazon.com and search in books using the title or at least the first 4 words or you may get from our office at 37 W. Garden St., Auburn, NY 13021 for $15.00 with an autograph option for our patients.
NUTRITION: THE FIRST YEAR
Birth to Four Months
At birth babies usually have a hard time digesting most solid foods. Breast milk or formulas are much easier to digest. In the first few months of life babies also tend to get food allergies easier. As the baby gets older, the intestine may digest more foods and be less sensitive to allergies. Feeding solid foods too early may cause allergies or digestion problems with diarrhea or constipation. Even with breast milk or formulas, there may be problems. About 5 percent of infants on cow's milk formulas become allergic to them. Signs of allergy may be: rash, crankiness, vomiting, or diarrhea. Sometimes breast-fed infants may even become allergic to foods that their mothers have eaten. The fewer types of foods eaten, the less likely is the chance of developing allergies.
Human milk and the formulas generally supply all that infants need to grow. Some babies may breast feed every hour during the day and less often at night. It is important that the mother eat an extra 800 calories to keep the breast milk rich. If the baby is growing well, the mother may lose up to 1/2 lb per week. Unless they receive more than 2 hours of sunshine per week, breast-fed babies need Vitamin D drops. After 6 months of age fluoride is also prescribed. It helps in the formation of strong enamel on the teeth. Breast feeding mothers should always avoid spicy hot foods, and avoid huge amounts of gassy foods such as (broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower), stimulants such as (coffee, tea, cola, caffeine or chocolate), and smoking. Some breast fed babies will get fussy when their mothers drink much cow's milk or eat eggs or chicken. Breast milk late in the feeding is richer.
Sugar water may be made at home bringing water to a boil and dissolving 2 teaspoons of sugar in 2 ounces of water. This may be used after breast feeding if the milk is not in yet or once a day if the baby does not like plain water. After 2 months of age, the water need not be boiled if it is clean and pure. Babies are born with a taste for sweets. Corn syrup or honey may cause infant botulism syndrome so should only be used after in baby is 12 months old. Do not just give plain water or sugar water more than 4 ounces a day.
Imitations of Human Milk
Commercial infant formulas contain enough vitamins for the average baby. Formulas are the best they have ever been, but scientists are still not sure they know everything that is in breast milk. Infants up to 20 pounds weight will usually take 40 to 60 calories or 2 to 3 ounces of formula per pound per day. The regular commercial formulas, Similac, Enfamil, and Good Start are made from cow's milk protein with fats, sugars and vitamins added. Babies over 8 pounds usually do not need any more vitamins than those contained in the commercial formulas. Fluoride to help prevent tooth decay and cavities usually will be prescribed for children at 12 months of age.
Adequate feedings should always be offered to the baby when there are signs of hunger. Some babies eat more often than others, some eat less often. Never force the baby to eat as this will only lead to feeding problems. Some babies only take 2 to 3 ounces at a time, and others take 8 to 10 ounces depending on stomach size. Whether breast or bottle fed, infants are usually chubby between 2 and 10 months of age. When they start rolling, crawling and walking, they tend to thin out. Chubbiness in babies does not lead to obesity in adults unless overeating of fats and sugar is encouraged throughout childhood.
Iron in the Diet
At birth full term babies have a surplus of iron even if their mothers are anemic, but by the time they double their birth weight, they need more iron. Formulas with iron should be started by 2 months of age. Breast milk contains adequate iron. Soy formulas contain iron also. Only about 2% of babies have a problem with formulas such as diarrhea or constipation or fussiness or eczema. Cow's milk is a poor source of iron. When solids are started, iron will be obtained from enriched cereals, egg yolks, beets, beef, liver, raisins, grapes, grape juice and beet juice. Raisins and other dried fruits and sticky candy cause tooth decay so the teeth should be brushed after eating them. Too much iron may also make you sick so be sure to use just the right amount. At our office we often check to be sure our patients have enough iron by doing a finger prick blood test around 9 to 12 months of age.
Soy and Other Formulas
When the baby has colic (fusses 3 hours every evening) or gets eczema (a dry scaly red rash), or has vomiting or diarrhea from a cow's milk formula, then a soy formula should be tried. The soy formulas are Isomil, Prosobee and Good Start Soy.
Some babies will get allergic to soy and then must try special hypoallergenic formulas such as Gentlease, Good Start, or more hypoallergenic formulas such as Nutramigen or Alimentum. They are made from specially broken down cow's milk protein. (Good Start or Gentlease are similar but sometimes babies who are allergic to the milk formulas may also be allergic to these formulas with bigger protein pieces.) If this does not work then goat's milk may be tried. Evaporated/whole goat's milk may be made in a formula as for cow's milk. Goat's milk must be supplemented with vitamins, iron, and with folic acid. Folic acid is present in fruit and vegetables. Now some brands of evaporated goat's milk have folic acid already added to it. It has been popular with kids for many years.
Occasionally babies will not tolerate the regular formula, then formulas may be made up from evaporated or whole milk. Parents may mix up a formula from evaporated milk. If regular modern formulas are unavailable or not tolerated them you might try Evaporated Milk Formula: 13 ounces evaporated milk, 13 ounces water, 3 Teaspoons of sugar. If you use this formula, then vitamin drops, oligopolysaccharides, and DHA should also be used such as Poly-Vi-Sol with iron, hypoallergenic vegetable or fruit fiber, and omega 3 fatty acids.
For the first 2 months of life, the milk containers and the water used should be sterilized by boiling for 1 minute. Rarely a baby may do better with whole milk formula since fresh pasteurized cow's milk contains less food additives as does evaporated milk: Whole Milk Formula: 6 ounces whole milk, 3 ounces water, and 3 teaspoons of sugar. You must also give the baby vitamins with iron, oligopolysaccharides and omega 3 fatty acids. Most babies will do worse on whole milk formula since it is harder to digest and more likely to give allergy and digestive problems.
Usually, the evaporated milk or commercial formulas are easier to digest, and cause less allergies since they are heat treated. Whole milk is preferred to 2% milk since babies need fat for brain and nerve development; however, some babies get very gassy on whole milk and may do better with 2% milk.
Solid Foods after 4 months old
For all babies, solid foods should be introduced by the 6th month of life. Some babies who spit up large amounts and often may need solid foods sooner. When babies are over 13 lbs. or are waking up more often rather than less, or after 4 months of age they may need solids. When introducing any new food, wait at least 3 days before introducing another new food. This will allow time to observe any effects from the new food, though allergies may develop at any time later. The first food to introduce is rice cereal, starting with one tablespoon once a day and increasing to two tablespoons three times a day over a period of two weeks. If the stools get too hard with the cereal, sweet potatoes or pears may also be started or after 6 months old switching to barley or oat cereal may produce softer stools. After 6 months old barley or oat cereal may be tried, then wheat cereal.
Until 7 months of age, certain foods which often cause allergies should be avoided: such as egg whites, strawberries. After 12 months old chocolate, peanut butter and oranges may be tried.
After rice cereal next or second solid food group to introduce is vegetables. First try yellow vegetables such as carrots and sweet potatoes; then try green vegetables such as peas, beans, and spinach.
The third group to introduce is fruits. First try applesauce, then ripe bananas, cooked pears or plums. Pears, plums, peaches, and prunes tend to loosen the stools. Fruit juices such as apple or pear juice started a 1/2 strength (1/2 water, 1/2 juice) may be started at 6 months old. Orange juice is allergenic. It may be started after 9 months old. Fruit juices tend to loosen the stools.
The fourth food group to try is meats. Lamb and beef are less allergenic and may be started first. Also at this time egg yolks may be started. The egg whites tend to cause allergies and should be avoided early on. Egg yolks are a good source of iron. The cholesterol contained in the yolks is needed by the baby, though it may be harmful to hearts of adults. Babies may take as many yolks as they like, but adults should not take more than 2 yolks per week. Adults may safely get omega 3’s from ground flax seed and get extra fiber and beta carotene also.
The amount of food babies eat varies, depending on their size, rate of growth and metabolism. For the first 20 pounds, infants use about 50 calories per pound. Generally, people do better with a variety of foods at each meal, rather than a large quantity of only one food at each meal.
Garlic and other herbs and spices may help the body to fight bad viruses and bacteria and control allergies. They may be added to baby food as powder or as finely chopped pieces to help prevent infections. Chicken soup also helps to clear congestion in the ears, sinuses and nose. Often breast fed infants nurse better when their mothers eat garlic. Garlic may also help remove the toxic metals lead and arsenic from the body.
Some babies may gum and swallow coarsely ground food or crackers at 6 months of age while others may only be able to chew and swallow strained foods until 2 years of age. When starting table food or crackers, watch your baby carefully for choking.
Cow's milk may be substituted for human milk or for formula when the baby is taking less than 24 ounces per day and taking fruits, cereal, vegetables and beef. If a baby is taking over 24 ounces of cow's milk per day, he/she usually may not get enough solids and thus may not get enough iron and vitamins. Usually babies have a hard time digesting cow's milk until they are 6 months old. Babies need fat in their diets. Until children are 2 years old, whole milk is best. If the baby is overweight or gets gassy on whole milk, 2% milk is acceptable. After 2 years old, skim milk is fine to use especially in overweight children.
This is a mineral which makes the tooth enamel stronger and cavity resistant. Fluoride taken regularly by children up to 13 years old will help prevent about 50% or one-half of the cavities in most children. Fluoride is a prescription item. Fluoride when taken by mouth and swallowed works through the blood stream to strengthen teeth even before they erupt. Fluoride is not present in any water in Cayuga County. It is added to the water supplies in Syracuse, Skaneateles, Jordan, Elbridge, Wolcott, Newark, Rochester and the Seneca Army Depot. Fluoride very rarely will cause an allergy. When taken in prescribed amounts or when present in a water supply it has been shown to be safe and very effective. Fluoride in large amounts (100 times the usual dose) is toxic as is aspirin or iron. People taking fluoride for over 70 years have been carefully studied and found to have no or minimal harmful effects from the fluoride. Fluoride has been shown in one study to cause cancer in rats when used in very large amounts. Fluoride if taken by humans in too large amounts may cause chalky white teeth. Therefore, I now use only 1/2 the present and past standard recommendation for adequate cavity prevention and the best safety. Children who swallow much toothpaste with fluoride should avoid taking a fluoride supplement. Now in the USA fluoride supplements are started at 12 months of age. In Canada they start fluoride supplements at 3 years old. In the USA or United States of America fluoridation status of water supplies may be found at https://nccd.cdc.gov/DOH_MWF/Default/Default.aspx Toothpaste with fluoride gives about 95% of the protection if used correctly and regularly that fluoridated water gives. Fluoridated water might cause at most 1 case of cancer per 200,000 people while preventing millions of cavities.